Posts Tagged water refilling station

Fallacies on the Number of Stages (Part 1)

Nowadays, the belief is that, “the longer the stages the cleaner the water”. So many set ups were being advertised with the highlights of the number of stages.14, 16, 18, 21, 23, 26, 29 etc.

Question is that, are the number of stages would guarantee you, to have the safest drinking water?

Allow me to present the basic units used in a typical water treatment design for water station.

1) Multi-media depth filter (MMDF) – Fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) tank with either automatic, manual or semi-automatic valve with media elements inside. This unit is used to trap particulates or suspended solids from the water through depth filtration. When we talk of depth filtration, it means that filtration happens from top to the bottom of the major filter media which is the Anthracite Coal probably 1 ft3.

Volumes for 1054 tank size and below it are layers of sand and gravel that acts as a supporting bed to prevent the major filter media from collapsing. It can either be 3, 4 or seven layers depending on the designer’s desired height. Let us say we settle for 3 layers supporting bed and Anthracite coal on top, we will be having 4 layers for the MMDF unit. We have 4 layers but function is one.

Trapping of particulates but it is projected as four stages. We have to establish that when we talk of stages, it refers to the gradual enhancement of water in terms of quality as it passes through the said stages. Now talking of MMDF, how many enhancements do the water undergoes? Four stage enhancement or just one? So is it right to say 4 stages or 4 layers single stage?

2) Carbon tank- same concept as the MMDF but the difference is the major filter media, Granular Activated Carbon is used as top layer. Some are saying that there are layers of bituminous carbon, lignite carbon and granular activated carbon but actually functions of bituminous and lignite are the features of Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) sabi nga same banana.

It is designed to remove foul taste, odor, color caused by organic contaminants and any carbon based substance or derivatives. Again it has 4 layers, so how many stages does a carbon tank have? Four or one?

3) Water Softener Tank- same concept as that of MMDF and Carbon Tank but again the difference is the major filter media which is the Resin (Cation resin for calcium, magnesium and iron adsorption) Designed to remove hardness from the water.

So again it has 4 layers but single function which is to convert hard water into soft water by removing calcium and magnesium from the water via ion exchange process(next time I will be discussing the concept of ion exchange).So again, how many stages does a water softener tank has? Four or one?

4) RO sediment pre-filter- you can use 5 micron and 1 micron or just 5 micron sediment filter. However some are using 20,10,5 and 1 micron .We assumed that we will be using 5 and 1 micron sediment filter. So for this segment we use 2 stages.

5) Reverse Osmosis system-Designed to remove salt and other minerals from the water. This is again one stage.

6) Polishing carbon- .We can use either one or two carbon block filters. For our discussion, we use 2 carbon blocks so that means to say, we have 2 stages of polishing carbon. The first carbon block is intended to remove organic contaminants that the water might have while inside the product tank and the second carbon is for further enhancement in terms of taste and appearance.

7) Ultra Violet Sterilizer-eliminates disease causing micro-organisms by emitting ultra violet rays while water is passing through the reaction chamber. This is again a single stage process.

Here is the summary:

MMDF – 1 stage
Carbon Tank- 1 stage
Water Softener- 1 stage
RO pre filter- 2 stages
RO- 1 stage
Polishing carbon- 2 stages
UV- 1 stage

Total number of stages: 9 stages

Next time, I will be discussing the analysis and interpretation of the concept presented.



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Issues Concerning the 3000 GPD Reverse Osmosis System

Many things and concepts were discussed here about membranes. It was established that membrane production depends on so many factors. For you to establish a 3000 GPD production (single membrane) is comparable to running your car at a speed of 180 to 220 km/hour.

You have pushed the membrane’s performance to its maximum limit. In fact, if you are to compare our membrane design to other countries then you can see the major difference in terms of technical design.

A typical 3000 GPD in other countries is using 2 membranes. You know why? They are considering the safety factor. They are making a safe projection on the membranes performance.

Here in our country, we are doing the contrary, we are pushing the membranes to its maximum limit and as a result, membrane’s service life is shortened.

I’m just wondering, most of the package being sold today are single membrane with 3000 GPD production rating. You think that is right?

Mathematically speaking, if you divide 3000 by 24 and divide the answer by 60, you will have 2.083 GPM or gal/min. So if the client will see that production is below this, then he/she will say that the system is not right.

Since there are factors affecting the membrane production, it is difficult to establish 3000 GPD especially in places where TDS and Chlorides are high.

So, why mention 3000 GPD using single membrane? Why not mention 1500 or 2000 GPD?

What I am trying to point out is the level of professionalism when presenting the system. Clients have the right to be informed correctly, sabi nga transparency, hindi lang puro sales talk then later sablay pala, so apparently the credibility of the company or the person doing the system will fall down.

I don’t want to discuss more about this issue, but just a point to consider to all concerns.

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Knowing the Right Concepts of Filtration and Purification.

Why do I kept on stressing, knowing the right concepts of filtration and purification. I just want to share an incident that I encountered last Wed, April 8.

There was a walk in client in the office that day, I was called by one of my staffs to handle the issue and when I talked to her, she was very depressed of what had happened to her water station. I asked her why were she able to know our company and she told me that she just saw our display while passing along Shaw Blvd. She bought filters and she shared to me her problems hoping that she can get a better solution to her problems.

She bought her water station to her friend who happened to migrate to Canada 5 months ago. Included were the systems, some bottles, few dispensers, 2 units of padyak bikes and she was the one who continued the rental of the place. So thinking that she can save for the site renovation and marketing efforts, she paid the total amount of P300,000. The system was just 6 months old at that time and as of that day, Wed, April 9 the system was just 11 month old.

She discussed to me so many concerns about the maintenance she spent from the time she acquired the unit. All the media elements were replaced, membrane was changed and she kept on buying pumphead (Procon).

To sum it all, she was able to spend P100,000 and still problems are not solved. She is still complaining of low production, high TDS, frequent replacement of pump head. What makes my blood boils was according to the water company that handles her concern, all the parts are made in China nowadays that is why she encounters so many problem.

Sabi nga hindi pa Byernes Santo, naghugas na ng kamay si Pontio Plilato, The client was a wife of a Seaman and all they want was to have a business pero the way things are going right now they just want to close the business due to so many technical problems of the systems and they cannot spend more for additional major repairs since all their savings was used up.

I just advised her that for the meantime, just operate the business and just focus on the immediate problem, which is the constant replacement of pumphead. I even recommended a technician that will trouble shoot the problem and will give her the cheaper alternative means.

As of this time, the technician texted me and so far, he was able to solve the problem and I was very happy because I was able to help the client in my own little way.

So, how would you empathize with the client? Who should be blamed? Her ignorance of the concept? or the company that pretends to know the concept? this is what I am telling, any person or company that are engaged in this business should have this social obligation of doing the right thing so as not to create disastrous act that will affect water station owners.


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Some Wrong Beliefs about the Membrane

Since our readers right now are having ideas of the factors that affect the performance of the membrane, I just want to discuss some wrong beliefs about the membrane per se.

First, some are saying that Hydronautics membranes made in China have lesser quality than counterparts made in Japan or USA. Most of the end users had the wrong impressions of the products made in China.

We have to consider the fact that Nitto Denko, manufacturer of Hydranautics is a Japanese company, and had a manufacturing plant in Japan, USA and China.

With regards to quality, then all these plants are under the supervision of Nitto Denko so I do not see any variations when it comes to the general quality in terms of performance.

The reason for the price difference is due to freight, handling and taxes. Even labor in China is cheaper, so the cost of China made Hydranautics membranes are really cheaper compared to USA and Japanese made.

When we talk of quality, regardless of its point of origin, should be the same.

Second, Filmtech membranes on the other hand are all manufactured in USA except for HRLE which is made in China, but DOW, the manufacturer of Filmtech have plans of transferring their production in China.

Third, CSM membranes are all made in Korea, when talking of technologies, they are far more superior to ours, and CSM brands have gained reputations in the world market.

Fourth, Osmonics membranes are also US brand but I do not know if they already have the manufacturing plant here in ASIA, I am not familiar with operations of GE when it comes to their production sites.

Fifth, other brands not mentioned, as long as they have the test protocol written in the brochure to prove their claims, then we can conclude that qualities are competitive.

The point is that, regardless of any membrane brands, as long as you know its characteristics and applications and as long as the system design is right then, we can say that all membranes would function according to its purpose.

Sad to say, nowadays, most of the membrane failures are believed to cause by its poor quality. Although we cannot discount the fact that there are some factory defects issue, but that would be ruled out upon assessment of the systems design and membrane performance.

I just hope that someday, all concerned will all be enlightened with the right concepts of filtration and purification.

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Membrane Troubleshooting

Just want to share my experiences about membrane troubleshooting. Every time clients are complaining to me about the issue of low production upon installation of the new membrane, I always tell them that we have to test the membrane to confirm the issue. If clients are saying that it is a factory defect, upon testing the membrane, I will rule out that it is not factory defect but Customer’s Defect or Technician’s Defect.

What do I mean by this? First of all you have to understand that Reverse Osmosis is a technical concept and for you to fully understand the system, you have to know the Principle of Reverse Osmosis.

If someone will be saying that they know how to install the membrane but does not understand the concept, then that is where the problem always lies.

First every membrane has its own test protocol according to its applied pressure, production, NACL and recovery rate. When we talk of NACL, we are talking of the osmotic pressure, if someone will say they don’t know this but have installed so many membranes, do you think that guy is credible and competent enough to discuss issues about membrane trouble shooting.

Second, membrane production depends on feed pressure and flowrate. If you ask them what is the feed flowrate and they do not know the capacity of the pump head or the performance curve of the vertical motor that they are using? Patay na!

How about the capacity of the feed pump? Is it capable enough to sustain the requirement of the RO module? What is the assumptive delivery volume of the said pump once it reaches the pump head?

These are just some of the things to consider when designing a system or doing the membrane troubleshooting.

The membrane is the most sensitive part of the basic systems that we are selling (WRS Set-up) any deviation from the technical design would affect its performance.

The main issue is what part of the system is contributory to the failure of the membrane. That is where troubleshooting comes in. Sabi ko nga uli,”You Hit the Nail by the Head”. Others are doing the “Guessing Game” or others will be doing it their own way, sabi nga may sariling concept, habang gumagawa nga sila kumakanta pa ng “MY WAY ni Paul Anka”

I am telling you all of these not to offend others doing their livelihood but to inform them the need to enrich their knowledge so that they can became useful and not damaging to the Water Industry.

For me, I never stop reading water treatment articles and I even ask my friends if I have doubts on certain issues. I am not saying na sobrang galing ko, in fact marami pa ko di alam and how I wish na mas marami akong ma meet na tao na magagaling sa Water Treatment para lalo pa ko matuto.

I just try to see that what I am doing is within the bounds of water filtration and purification concept.

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FILMTEC Brand Membrane Intended for Chinese Market

HRLE is a FILMTEC brand membrane intended for Chinese market, however it was introduced in the Philippines.

As to performance ok siya but depending sa application.

As per test protocol:

3000 GPD @145 psi
15% recovery

If chloride content of water is less than 500 ppm, puwede siya.
Also, as a reference, TDS should not go 500 ppm.

All the while they thought that HRLE is same spec as that of LE kasi pareho daw BW.

As per test Protocol BWLE is:

2300 GPD @150 psi
NACL is 2000 ppm
15% recovery

In ordinary layman’s term, pag HRLE dapat mababa TDS at LE pag sobra taas ng TDS. However, pag ginamit LE sa mababa TDS mas ok siya, ika nga over qualified.

About Unique, they are really stupid kasi nagbebenta sila ng mga item na di naman nila alam, ginawa nila talaga karnabal ang water industry.

Kaya nga di lang ss pag bili ng system mag ingat, pati ss pyesa, marami talaga nagbebenta ng pyesa na walang kamalay-malay kung ano binebenta nila.

If you will be asking me what brand are you going to use, then check first the quality of your water and refer to the test protocol. You can get it from the internet.

Any brand will do as long tama ang application at tama ang over all design ng system.


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Water Refilling Parts For Sale



Carbon Block SL10 5 mic – P 800
Carbon Block SL20 5 mic – 1,600
Carbon Block BB10 5 mic – 1,750
Carbon Block BB20 5 mic – 3,500


Carbon Block SL10 5 mic – P 175
Carbon Block SL20 5 mic – 350
Carbon Block BB10 5 mic – 750
Carbon Block BB20 5 mic – 1,500


Carbon Block SL10 5 mic – P 350
Carbon Block SL20 5 mic – 700
Carbon Block BB10 5 mic – 1,700
Carbon Block BB20 5 mic – 2,500


Carbon Block SL20 2 mic – 1,400
Carbon Block BB20 2 mic – 2,800


Carbon Block SL10 5 mic – P 250
Carbon Block SL20 5 mic – 500
Carbon Block BB10 5 mic – 900
Carbon Block BB20 5 mic – 1,800


GAC SL10 25 mic 500
GAC SL20 25 mic 800
GAC SL10 25 mic 1,000
GAC BB10 25 mic 2,000
EP SL10 5 mic 500
EP SL20 5 mic 750
EP BB10 5 mic 1,100
EP BB20 5 mic 2,000
EPM SL10 10mic 500
EPM SL20 10 mic 650
EPM BB10 10 mic 1,000
EPM BB20 10 mic 1,850
CBC SL10 .5 mic 600
CBC SL20 .5 mic 1,200
CBC BB10 .5 mic 1,600
CBC BB20 . mic 3,200



(632) 534-5767/718-1603/718-1602
(632) 5313543




To all the readers:

We are on sale on the following membranes:

2600gpd @ 150 psi 1500ppm NACL – P 10,000

1900gpd @ 150 psi 1500ppm NACL- p 10,000

ESPA 3 (China version)
3000gpd@ 150 psi 1500ppm NACL- P 10,000

2600gpd @ 110 psi 2000ppm NACL- P 9,500

3000gpd@ 100 psi 500 ppm NACL- P 9,500

CSM (Korea)
2600gpd@ 150 psi 1500 ppm NACL- P 9,500

NOTE: ONLY FOR DEALERS!!!!!!!!!!!!!!


all readers,


BB20- 1500
BB10- 750
SLIM 20- 400
SLIM 10 – 200


SLIM 20- 1000
SLIM 10- 500





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