Posts Tagged water refilling station

Types of Customers in WRS Business

1) Loyal – customers that has strong ties with the suppliers.

2) Opportunistic – customers that consider other benefits from the suppliers. These types of customers do not have loyalty to any suppliers.

3) Seasonal – customers that buy product from time to time or on a “as per requirement basis”.

4) Incidental – those who become customer by chance.

  • A) Regular user-those who have encountered problems with other suppliers.
  • B) New -those who buy the product at given period of time.

Among these customers, the opportunistic customer is the most common and right now due to cut throat competition, they are becoming to be so powerful that in every negotiation with the supplier, they usually have the leverage and dictates the direction of the bargaining.

Since the objective nowadays of the water stations is to outsmart each other by offering so many benefits to the client in order to get them, unknowingly they are being armed with all the artilleries that they will be using during the negotiation.

Water stations have created their own ghost which will later haunt them.

Sad to say, but that is the reality right now and as of the moment, no concrete solution is being undertaken on this issue.

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Choose your Water Refilling Company Wisely

To all my friends out there having problems with your systems,sad to say,you should really choose the company that you are dealing with. There are some water companies pretending to be professional but in reality they know very little about water filtration and water refilling stations, all they care is to sell the package but they don’t realize the outcome of their irresponsibility.

As a professional, the first thing that they have to do is to ask a water sample coming from the site that you intended to put up the business. If it is Maynilad water, then it will not be a big investment because you can use a system without reverse osmosis, but of course you can also use reverse osmosis, now the issue here is that, the company should have discussed the options first in order for you to decide what systems are you going to use,that is the principle of TRANSPARENCY.

Now if you have a deep-well source of water,then they should justify the configuration of the system because every deep-well water water have a different characteristics so it is assumed that systems design may vary. The basic principle of filtration and purification is to come up with a system design based on the quality of water to be treated and application.the usual scenario if you wanted to put up a water station is that they will immediately offer a pre-designed system with sort of number of stages,oh my GOD,another issue,yan ang nakakalungkot, ginagawa nilang carnabal ang water industry.

They are stressing the concept of The Longer the Stages the better the Quality of Water which is technically irrelevant. The quality of drinking water will be determined by the result of the bacteriological and physico chemical test conducted by the accredited laboratory of the DOH. Simple, but they are making it complicated by discussing the number of stages na in reality is hindi naman din talaga nila alam.

That is why you guys out there are experiencing problems in your systems na it seems walang katapusan dahil pinaglaruan at pinagpraktisan ng kung sino-sinong technician pretending to be marunong but in reality is just a helper na pinabili ng suka sa tindahan e ayon nagpanggap na, na technician or di kaya naman, ahente na nagtayo ng water company at iyon na. Kaya you guys are really the casualty of those irresponsibilities.

Hindi ko naman nilalahat ang mga water company,there are still plenty of them out there doing their professional work, it is just up to you to decide whom will you choose. If you will ask me kung pano malalaman ang totoong water company o hindi? Just read and understand what I have discussed and I am sure you are on the right track. I am not trying to offend anyone, I just care for the innocent victims na wala namang hinangad kungdi makapag negosyo ng maayos gamit ang pinagpagurang puhanan and then they will just be treated unprofessionally, that is really unfair on their part, you are just considering your own benefits.

You should have the social responsibilities of guiding your clients all the way because they are your partners. Orienting them with the systems,about the operation of the business, marketing, training the staffs and owners are the main tasks that you should be doing to your client at hindi yung iniiwan nyo sila sa ere the moment na makuha nyo ang bayad, SHAME ON YOU.

Para sa kaalaman ng lahat, I am the Product Manager of an Import Export company dealing with the distribution of water treatment parts and accessories. We do not sell systems at d kami nag ooffer ng water station package, so hindi ako one sided at wala akong pinapaboran na sino man, I am speaking from a neutral point of view, in fact yung mga client namin na water company na wala sa hulog e binibigyan namin ng seminar in order for them to compete professionally in the market.

As far as our company is concern,we are trying to fulfill our social obligation by orienting our clients on the basic concept in order for them to serve their own client efficiently!

Posted by Charlie at 2:13 AM

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How Did Water Refilling Station came to existence?

The main issue long time ago, was the need for safe drinking water. We all know that fresh water is becoming to be so limited and alternative source must be considered in order for us to be prepared for the worst possible scenario that we might be encountering in the near future, which is the scarcity of safe drinking water.

During the early stage of water treatment in our country, the first has been introduced was home purifying gadget sold by Electrolux.

Now, let’s start to analyze, the said product was made to address the problem for safe drinking water, “TRUE”, but the dilemma lies on the fact that not all people from all walks of life can buy the product.

Solution should be for the benefits of all and not just for those who are privileged enough to buy the system. How about the ordinary people? Will they be deprived from availing the access of safe drinking water?

The next solution that was introduced was bottled water. Now we analyze again, is it affordable to all? “YES”.

If we try to analyze carefully, although bottled water is affordable, still it will entail a big cut from our daily budget.

If an individual needs to drink 1.5 liters of water for one day and if the price of 500 ml. is P10.00, you need to pay 30.00 a day just to maintain your body in good condtion. What if there are 4 to 5 members in the family. How much will it cost?

Everytime you are buying the bottled water, you are not just paying for the water but also for the bottle.

Finally, the most practical solution that was developed, was the introduction of water refilling station. Again let’s analyze, will it be affordable to all concerns? “YES”.

In this concept, you are just actually paying the water.
The container on the other hand will just be paid once, then, you can just have it refilled.

As a summary, Water Refilling Station Business came into existence in order to adhere the need for safe drinking water at a very practical means. Its stability was founded on the basic needs in order for us to survive.

The only problem now is the cut throat competition in the market. If you will ask me for a solution? Sad to say, realistically speaking, no comment as of the moment.

Hope that I have imparted some ideas to all of you readers.

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Is it Still Advisable to Put Water Refilling Station Business Nowadays?

Is it advisable to put up a water refilling station business nowadays, considering that there are so many existing stations everywhere?

As I have discussed in my previous entry in this blog, safe drinking water is a necessity and since fresh water reserve is becoming to be limited, treating water for drinking application is a must.

Considering our population of 85 to 90 million, the existence of 15 to 20 thousand water station is not enough to serve the demand.

It is a forecast that, time will come, the only means of obtaining safe drinking water is to have it treated.

As years go by,population will continue to grow, thus, increasing the demand for safe drinking water.

There is really, a need for more water station to meet the demand of the entire drinking public. However the manner by which the business is presented, is not designed to adhere the the future needs but on a profit oriented concept.

Presently, if you try to inquire for a water refilling station package, what will be high lighted are the profit, ROI,market expansion.

All of them are the brighter side of the business,but how about the darker side? It was never presented and you yourself will be the one to discover it the moment you operate the business. Sabi nga MABULAGA ka and there’s no way of turning back, so continue ka na lang.

Based on survey,most of the refilling stations that are operating, specially here in Metro Manila survived due to lower operational expenses and minimal sales of 50 to 100 containers per day at the price of 30 to 35 per container.

Water stations having a huge operations, are most likely having big problems in their business. Alam ko marami magreact dito pero realistically speaking, try to rate your operation and see to it, how far have you gone?

Since there is a cut throat competition and the main issue is price, there is no practical way of increasing the profit but to lessen the operations expenses.

That is why as you can see right now, bugbugan ng bugbugan sa presyo and in the end lahat ng water stations apektado.

If this trend will continue to happen, marami station ang magsasara and the preparation to serve the needs of the consumer in the near future will not be successful.

Imagine madagdagan ang population but ang water stations are few because ayaw na nila magtayo kasi di na kumikita.

What should be proper is that, if a water station will be put up today, it will be meant to operate as long as there is a demand for safe drinking water.

Supposedly, the concept of marketing is not to outsmart each other by dropping the price, but it should be services and quality.

Aside from that, water station business is a micro business, some sort of a backyard business, sari sari store and the likes.

If you will try to operate on a small scale basis and territorial, then that is where the profit will come and eliminating cut throat because there is no need to expand your area.

As I am saying,putting up a water station business nowadays is still profitable but not to the extent of becoming a millionaire in a very short period of time. It requires personal management, patience and the right vision for the business.

I know after making this,many will comment, react and contradict my views, but I just want to inform you readers that what I have made is based on my personal opinion, everyone is entitled to his own opinion and this is the very essence of this blog, to inform the readers what we feel on certain issues and concern.

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Water Refilling Station Tips and Advice

A regular visitor of this site, Orly-Shanghai, is an expert in the water refilling station business. He is regularly sharing his experience and expertise in this kind of business. Here are some of his tips and advice he posted on the comments section.

On choosing the right company:

To all my friends out there having problems with your systems, sad to say, you should really choose the company that you are dealing with. There are some water companies pretending to be professional but in reality they know very little about water filtration and water refilling stations, all they care is to sell the package but they don’t realize the outcome of their irresponsibility.

As a professional, the first thing that they have to do is to ask a water sample coming from the site that you intended to put up the business. If it is Maynilad water, then it will not be a big investment because you can use a system without reverse osmosis, but of course you can also use reverse osmosis, now the issue here is that, the company should have discussed the options first in order for you to decide what systems are you going to use,that is the principle of TRANSPARENCY.

Choose your Water Refilling Company Wisely

Now if you have a deep-well source of water,then they should justify the configuration of the system because every deep-well water water have a different characteristics so it is assumed that systems design may vary. The basic principle of filtration and purification is to come up with a system design based on the quality of water to be treated and application.the usual scenario if you wanted to put up a water station is that they will immediately offer a pre-designed system with sort of number of stages,oh my GOD,another issue,yan ang nakakalungkot, ginagawa nilang carnabal ang water industry.

They are stressing the concept of The Longer the Stages the better the Quality of Water which is technically irrelevant. The quality of drinking water will be determined by the result of the bacteriological and physico chemical test conducted by the accredited laboratory of the DOH. Simple, but they are making it complicated by discussing the number of stages na in reality is hindi naman din talaga nila alam.

That is why you guys out there are experiencing problems in your systems na it seems walang katapusan dahil pinaglaruan at pinagpraktisan ng kung sino-sinong technician pretending to be marunong but in reality is just a helper na pinabili ng suka sa tindahan e ayon nagpanggap na, na technician or di kaya naman, ahente na nagtayo ng water company at iyon na. Kaya you guys are really the casualty of those irresponsibilities.

Hindi ko naman nilalahat ang mga water company,there are still plenty of them out there doing their professional work, it is just up to you to decide whom will you choose. If you will ask me kung pano malalaman ang totoong water company o hindi? Just read and understand what I have discussed and I am sure you are on the right track. I am not trying to offend anyone, I just care for the innocent victims na wala namang hinangad kungdi makapag negosyo ng maayos gamit ang pinagpagurang puhanan and then they will just be treated unprofessionally, that is really unfair on their part, you are just considering your own benefits.

You should have the social responsibilities of guiding your clients all the way because they are your partners. Orienting them with the systems,about the operation of the business, marketing, training the staffs and owners are the main tasks that you should be doing to your client at hindi yung iniiwan nyo sila sa ere the moment na makuha nyo ang bayad, SHAME ON YOU.

Para sa kaalaman ng lahat, I am the Product Manager of an Import Export company dealing with the distribution of water treatment parts and accessories. We do not sell systems at d kami nag ooffer ng water station package, so hindi ako one sided at wala akong pinapaboran na sino man, I am speaking from a neutral point of view, in fact yung mga client namin na water company na wala sa hulog e binibigyan namin ng seminar in order for them to compete professionally in the market.

As far as our company is concern,we are trying to fulfill our social obligation by orienting our clients on the basic concept in order for them to serve their own client efficiently!

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Setting-Up a Water Refilling Station

One of fast expanding business in Manila, and in most Metro cities nationwide, is the water refilling station. It’s mushrooming on every street corner, because a lot of people in urban areas prefer to get their drinking water from these water stations, it’s simply clean and safe to drink.

This is the reply from an ex-OFW about my inquiries of setting-up a water refilling station. He’s an owner and supplier.

Sir ito po ang complete information ko about water refilling station. In here meron po akong offer for 1000gpd, mga tips at requirements sa wrs. About your questions… ROI maybe a year…kasi we all know that the first three months ay more on marketing.

If you will really decide to go into this business, I am willing to help you, I do not mind visiting the site kun meron na kayo. I will give you ideas how to run the business…Promo ko po yan sa first five customers ko.Salamat and you will not regret going into this business…

Go into water refilling station business because:

  1. You can earn 40 thousand a month.
  2. Very easy to operate and can be installed right under your home.
  3. Water is a basic need. Your customer will grow as time goes by. You can pass the business to your kids and generation ahead.
  4. Lot of people really made it big because of this business. Do not let somebody do it before you do.
  5. You will be proud and happy to own a water refilling station (speaking from experience).

Equipments:

1000 GPD Reverse Osmosis Water Purifying Unit.

1. Filters:
– 10×54″ FRP (blue), Multimedia filter with timer head
– 10×54″FRP (blue), Granular Activated Carbon, with timer head
– 10×54″ FRP (Blue), Softener with timer head and brine tank
– 20″ slim (blue), 5 micron sediment filter
– 20″ slim (blue), polishing filter

2. Reverse Osmosis Unit
– 1 no. 2.5×40″ R.O. membrane w/ stainless casing
– ½ hp procon pump, USA
– Low pressure controller
– 2 flowmeters
– 2 Pressure gauges
– stainless steel frame
– Control Panel for automation.

3. Water tanks
– 210gallons stainless steel raw water tank
– 210 gallons stainless steek product tank

4. Disinfection
– Ultraviolet – Germicdal (5GPM)

5. Pumps , motors
– 0.5hp pumps, stainless head, Italy complete with 21 gallons s/s pressure tank, pressure switch at gauge.
– 0.5 hp pumps (raw), stainles head, Italy with switch and gauge.

6. Installation :
– Installation and supply of pipes for 25sqmeter area is included in our offer.

7. Warranty
– 1 year warranty for mechanical parts
– 6 months warranty for electrical parts

8. Delivery:
Free within Metro Manila

9. Support
1 year technical support.
1 week training of your staff.

10. Package Price: P250,000.00 only

Advantages of our system
– The system is fully automatic and requires minimum maintenance and monitoring.
– The system can be upgraded upto 2000GPD with minimum cost.
– Pumps are from Italy
– Protection from low pressure, overload and short circuit.

I do not sell just to make money but also to help good and hard working people to survive this test in life – that is my commitment I know this business and I have learned to love it. Let me share my blessing. I am willing to help.

Water Refilling Station Costing, requirements and other important informations.

A. Capital Computation

a. 1000GPD water purification
b. Renovation of the station
c. Sign board
d. Stickers
e. 100 Bottles slim
f. 100 Bottles round
g. Motorcycle
h. two layer side car
i. Paper , documentation
j. Water testing
k. heat gun
250,000.00
75,000.00
3,500.00
12,500.00
12,500.00
15,000.00
65,000.00
15,000.00
3,500.00
4,500.00
2,500.00
Total
Say total capital
459,000.00
500,000.00

B. Cost, Sales, and Profit

  • Rent 5,000
  • Meralco 6,000
  • Water 3,500
  • Driver salary 4,500
  • Refiller salary 3,000
  • Fuel 1,500
  • Telephone 500
  • Depreciation 2,500
  • Maintenance 1,000
  • Consumables 1,000

Total cost 28,500

Sales for 1000GPD
Gallons (24hr.period) 1000
Bottles (5gal container) 200 bottles
Monthly (26days) 5,200 bottles
Sales (P35per bot) 182,000.00
Net Profit 153,500.00 monthly

Kung half lang ng capacity ang nabenta..meaning 100 bottles per day.
Sales = 91,000

Net profit 62,500.00 monthly, 64,000 monthly not bad pa rin di ba? Of course habang dumadami ang bottles produced at customer you may need to employ one more driver to accommodate the delivery.

C. Important Requirements:

  1. 25sq meters of space
  2. Good source of water. Total Dissolved Solids must be below 500ppm. Meron ako tester na ginagamit to know ang TDS ng tubig. Above this TDS (500ppm) baka the quality ng product ay maapektuhan.

D. Papers required for acquiring the License for your WRS

  1. DTI
  2. Barangay permit
  3. Mayor’s permit
  4. Sanitary permit from Municipality or DOH

E. Suggestions:

E1. Location

  1. You do not need to rent spacious place at along highway or road dahil tataas lang ang operating cost mo. If you have 25sqmeter sa bahay mo that will be enough. Or if you will rent naman siguro maximum take a place that would cost from 5000 to 10,000 maximum at dapat meron agreement for 5 years at least.
  2. If you are inside a well populated subdivision, very good because from the subdivision itsel you can easily earn 2 to 4k sales per day. At matipid pa sa gasolina.
  3. You do not need to be along the highway dahil 90percent of your sales will be home delivery.

E2: Equipments.

  • Actually you are saving if you will get higher capacity of Reverse Osmosis purification unit. You need to run the system half of the time(12hrs. Only) to produce 1000 gallons. Anyway, yung equipments naman ay madali i-upgrade.
  • If you can afford, get the fully automatic system. Wala ka ng babantayan na mapupuno or aapaw sa tanke. Just switch it on at it will automatically start and stop when empty at full na ang mga tangke.

E3: Delivery

You should have an idea kung saan ang maging market mo. Kung subdivision lang..motorcycle na lang ang biling mo dahil it can carry 25 bottles din at matipid sa gasolina. In our case P500 full tank every 8-10days. Noong jeep ang gamit namin it is P100 per day. Some uses padyak lang. Kung posible sa lugar niyo why not.

Contract : others will have a contract with motorcycle drivers P5 per gallon commission para ideliver ang tubig.

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How to Start a Water Refilling Station Business

It’s easy to start with this kind of business, here’s the procedures how:

1. Look for a supplier or seller of water refilling equipments and ask for the price list of different equipments that you can choose, if possible, ask for the feasibility study too to know how much the cost or total investment needed to put-up this type of business.

2. After studying the quotations and the total cost which you think is enough for your budget or capital, then you can start negotiating with the supplier. Ask for discounts and know the after-sales support you can get from them like maintenance and warranty. Don’t go for cheap equipments as this will not be worth in the long run. Always compare and check carefully what you can see on the photos they give against the actual equipment.

3. After choosing the right equipment to purchase, look for a good place to put your refilling station. Some local municipals require a minimum of 25 sqm. total area for this type of business, but oftentimes 20 sqm is enough. If you don’t want to rent a place, you can use your own house. Sales will not be a problem even you’re inside a subdivision.

4. If you already found the location for you refilling station, you can now contact your preferred equipment supplier for your final negotiations. Ask for a typical layout of a water station from them that you can copy for your own water station. Some suppliers will check and evaluate the place for the best design and layout.

5. Oftentimes, the supplier will ask for a down payment before starting to prepare your equipments. The lead time for complete assembly is 2 to 3 weeks. Ask for a receipt or letter when paying for a down payment.

6. After closing the deal with the supplier, you can now start the construction of your water station that will take 3 to 4 weeks to finish. Start also making the deep well if this will be your preferred water source. Let the supplier check your water station during the construction to so that the lay-out will be strictly followed. It is very important that the carpenter follows the lay-out carefully especially on the washing area, pipings and drainage layout. While the construction is on-going, you can apply for a business permit to save time.

7. Go to the nearest DTI in your area and bring your residence certificate and barangay clearance. It’s advisable to list 5 to 10 names you choose to name your business to avoid delay when your preferred name was already taken.

8. After getting the registered business name from DTI, go to your local municipal office and apply for a Mayor’s business permit. The process takes 2 to 3 weeks depending on the area. Some municipal office will require you to submit (a) water analysis of potability (physical, chemical and bacteriological test) from your raw or source of water. (b) Engineering drawings (building and electrical plan) signed by a sanitary engineer at other common legal requirement when applying for a building permit.

9. After getting the business permit and operation permit from municipal office, go to BIR and fill-up form 0506 and pay at the counter. After processing at BIR, you’re now ready to make and print your receipts from the printing press. Some printing press will require you to show the approved form 0506 issued by BIR before printing your receipts.

10. It’s now time to buy other supplies you will need like water containers, seals, heat gun, sanitizer soap, etc. You can also start doing your store’s signage and sticker labels for your products.

11. Once the construction of your water station is finished and the water source is ready, you can now schedule the installation of the equipments (it’s better to do it at night not too many people are roaming around). Complete installation takes 1 to 2 days only.

12. Allow the machine and equipments from 1 to 3 days to dry-run before selling the product, or get a sample for a water analysis. Go to the nearest DOH office and ask the procedures on how to test the water. Tip: it’s better to get a water sample after a month of operation to make sure that the result of water analysis is good.

13. Wait for the result of water testing. If it passed, then good luck and welcome to the club! If it failed the test, call immediately the one who installed your equipments and let them check and analyze why.

Other Frequently Ask Questions

Q: What are the different types of water you can sell?
A: There are four types of water that can be produced from the available equipments in the market today.

  1. Mineral Water = Less investment but the disadvantage is shorter shelf life.
  2. Purified Water = Equipments are more expensive that Mineral process with the use of “Reversed Osmosis system”, the water will last up to 6 months.
  3. Alkaline Water = Current fad because of positive write-ups about health benefits for people, but like mineral water, the shelf life is short.
  4. PI Water = Started from Japan, known to have good effects in people’s health but it’s still quite expensive and not that popular in the Philippines. The customers are mostly Chinese. The selling price is about P200 to P250 per container (5gal.)

Q: What is the best source of water, Nawasa or deep well?
A: Either of the two is fine, but deep well will give you a long term savings compared to Nawasa’s costly monthly charge for commercial use.

Q: How many personnel is required to run a water station?
A: At first, 3 is enough, 1 driver, 1 helper and 1 refiller/washer. The number of personnel is relative to the demand of your products.

Q: What are the consumable items with this type of business?
Answer:

  • Sediment Filter = replace every month or depending on the quality of the water source.
  • GAC or Carbon Filter = usually 6 to 8 months average but if the water source is not good maybe 4 months only
  • Carbon fillings = 8 moths to 1.5 years average lifespan, or will be replaced if broken or the water starts to smell
  • Daily use of seals
  • Stickers

Q: How true that this business is profitable and fast ROI?
A: All business is not instant magic, the potential is good simply because water is a necessity. But this type of business, as with other business requires hard-work, patience, and ability to sell your product.

Basic Feasibility Study

A. Capital Investment

  1. Water Refilling Machine – P 250,000.00
  2. Renovation or new store at least 20sqm size – 75,000.00
  3. Delivery vehicle (motorcycle with carrier or multi-cab) – 75,000.00
  4. Business permit & other legal docs (DTI, Mayor’s permit, Water testing, etc.) – 10,000.00
  5. Initial Supplies /miscellaneous – 31,750.00
    • a) 150 Bottles slim – 18,750.00
    • b) 50 Bottles round – 7,500.00
    • c) heat gun- 2,500.00
    • d) Stickers – 3,000.00
  6. Others – 8,250.00
  • Total = P 450,000.00

Note: Actual investment may increased or decreased depends on your actual resources, example:

  • a.) less amount for the delivery vehicle if you already have existing or you can buy 2nd unit.
  • b.) less amount for the store building if you have existing.
  • c.) increase or decrease amount on refilling equipment, depends on what type of water product you wants to sell ( e.g. Mineral is only P150,000.00 etc.)

B. Sales Income

Check market price per 5 gal. container. Price may vary depends on the area what type of water product you want to sell:

  • Mineral Water – P20 ~ P25 per container
  • Purified Water – P30 ~ P35 per container
  • Alkaline Water – P45 ~ P50 per container
  • PI Water – P200 ~ P250 per container

B1. Monthly Sales – P39,000.00

  • 1ST 2 Months: Target is at least 50 containers /day (50 containers x P30.00 selling price x 26days)

B2. Monthly Expenses – P15,600.00

  1. Manpower/salaries – P 500/ day or P 9,100.00 /mo.
    • 1 driver – P200 /day
    • 1 re-filler – P150 /day
  2. Electric bill – P3,500.00
  3. Phone bill – 500.00
  4. Transportation / gas allowance – 1,500.00
  5. Consumables and others – 1,000.00

B3. Net Profit- P23,400.00 (Gross Sales – Gross expenses = Net Profit)

Note: You cannot compute your monthly sales based from your machine capacity (GPD Gallon Per Day) like other vendor’s computation, simply because you cannot sold 200 bottles a day in the first 2 months operation of your business unless you’re already operating for a year and you already established your customers in your area.

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A Study on Water Refilling Station

The demand at the water refilling stations – water stores that sell purified water – is now increasing. The quality of purified water conforms with the national standards for drinking water and is even better than the quality of water produced by traditional water supply systems in terms of removed impurities.
Over the years, as the demand for cleaner water becomes higher, the price of household water purifiers and bottled water has become prohibitive. Water refilling stations managed by private entrepreneurs offer a cheaper and more convenient solution to the public’s drinking water needs than bottled water or the use of household filters.

At present, about 3,000 water refilling stations have proliferated nationwide. They sell purified water of comparable quality with bottled water at a lower price. For example, the current price per gallon of refilled purified water in Metro Manila ranges from P 50 to P 120 per 5-gallon container or about P 2.50 to P 6.00 per liter while the bottled water is sold at P 12.00 to P 25.00 per liter. Household filters, on the other hand, cost P 5,000 to P 25,000 per unit ( 1 US $ = P 56 in 2004).
In Metro Manila, most of the water refilling stations are connected to the pipes of two concessionaires: Maynilad Water Company or Manila Water Company for their source of raw water while in other areas they opt to use private deep wells. The “potable water” supplied by the providers is then further purified by utilizing a combination of water treatment equipment, such as sediment filters, carbon filters, water softeners, reverse osmosis membranes, ultra-violet lamps, and ozone generators. Typical water refilling stations can produce 3,000 to 12,000 litres of purified water per day. In previous years, most of the people were bringing a container to a water refilling station to buy purified water.
Nowadays, because of convenience on the part of the consumers, purified water in 5-gallon (22.7 litres) containers are delivered by the station directly to the people’s home. Aqua Sure, a water refilling station in Metro Manila, can deliver 5,500 gallons (25,000 litres) a day to its 8,000 household clients.
Features of a water refilling station
Structurally, water refilling station can be operated with a minimum area of at least 20-25 square metres. It comprises the following sections: refilling and selling room, enclosed water purification room, container washing and sanitizing room, storage room for empty and refilled containers, source water storage facility, toilet and an office. To operate the water store, about five employees are needed.
• 1 – Manager – Overseas store operations at least 4 hours a day
• 1 – Accountant/Bookkeepper – Makes financial statement of business operations
• 1 – Administrative assistant – Logs and handles cash sales and purchases
• 1 – Front Liner – Accepts and refills containers of customers
• 1 – Technical Asst. – Maintains and runs the machine
• 1 – Driver/Delivery Man – Transport refilled containers to customer’s home

The main processes in a water refilling station is dictated by raw water quality. The typical steps are filtration (several stages), softening, and disinfection. The machines that could be installed for such processes are the following:
• Multi-media sediment filter – removes sediments such as rust, sand and particles that are invisible to the naked eye; employs a total of 5 filters.
• Ion exchanger – replaces hard minerals with soft minerals.
• Activated carbon filter – removes all organic chemicals, herbicide, pesticide, offensive odor and bad taste.
• Reverse osmosis membrane – the heart of the system and the most expensive unit; removes inorganic minerals, bacteria and viruses while retaining its oxygen content. Since the filter size is very small at less than 0.05 micrometre, the product water could have a total dissolved solids (TDS) of less than 10 ppm. The filtration process rejects about 50 percent of raw water volume.
• Post-carbon filter – improves the taste of water.
• Ultraviolet lamp – ensures that the water is free from disease-causing micro-organisms.
• Ozone generator – inhibits the growth of bacteria in the product tank and prolongs the shelf life of water.
The efficiency of water purification system in removing impurities is high. The 10 water quality parameters measured by Magtibay (2001) showed an average of 80 percent efficiency.
Institutions and policies
The agencies directly involved in the establishment operation of water refilling stations are as follows:
• The Department of Health (DOH). DOH is the main agency responsible for protecting the health of the people. The Sanitation Code of the Philippines mandates DOH in protecting drinking water quality. Consequently, DOH issues implementing rules and regulations prescribing sanitary standards for water supply systems, including water refilling stations.
• The Center for Health Development (CHD) is the regional branch of DOH. Its main function is to provide technical assistance to local government units and to monitor DOH programme implementation which includes water quality and sanitation standards. For water refilling stations, CHD is mandated to issue initial and operational permits.
• The Local Government Units (LGUs) are mandated by Presidential Decree (PD 856) to issue sanitary permit, sanitary clearance, health certificates, certificate of potability, drinking water site clearance and closure order (if necessary) and to conduct sanitary inspection of WRS.
• The Water Quality Association of the Philippines Inc. (WQAP) is an organization of private firms who are engaged in the manufacture, sale, and distribution of water refilling station equipment and supplies, as well as water treatment and purification equipment and technology for household, institutional, commercial and industrial applications. About 85 percent of its 250 members operates water refilling stations.
• Association of Water Refilling Entrepreneurs (AWARE) concentrates on resolving business management issues of its members.
Presidential Decree No. 856 (PD 856) or the Sanitation Code of the Philippines is the main law requiring all establishments to comply with existing sanitary standards to protect public health. Guidelines for operating a water refilling station are indicated in the Supplemental Implementing Rules and Regulations on Water Supply of PD 856 issued in 1999.
Water quality monitoring
Source water and product water are subject to regular monitoring by the local health office. The national standards for drinking water contains 54 parameters that must be complied with. Only DOH-accredited laboratories are allowed to conduct water testing and analysis.

The frequency of monitoring is as follows:
• Bacteriological quality – at least monthly
• Physical quality – at least every six (6) months
• Chemical quality – at least every six (6) months
• Biological quality – at least once a year
• Monitoring of radioactive contaminants shall be done only if there is significant input of radiation from the surrounding environment.
Conclusions
Water refilling stations can be a good source of safe drinking water in the Philippines. Purified water can meet the aesthetic standards easily detectable by the people in terms of taste, odor and color. The efficient water purification processes can make the quality of water superior to the traditional water systems. However, the risk of contamination is possible if the handling practices are not closely monitored.

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Water Refilling Station Business Guide

One of the fast expanding businesses in Manila, and in most Metro cities nationwide, is the water refilling station. It’s mushrooming on every street corner, because a lot of people in urban areas prefer to get their drinking water from these water stations, it’s simply clean and safe to drink. Over the years, as the demand for cleaner water becomes higher, the price of household water purifiers and bottled water has become prohibitive. Water refilling stations managed by private entrepreneurs offer a cheaper and more convenient solution to the public’s drinking water needs than bottled water or the use of household filters.

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